Session A

Paper presentations (session A)

Nadine Dittert, Eva-Sophie Katterfeldt, and Sabrina Wilske (University of Bremen, Germany)
Digital fabrication technologies offer potential for sustainable learning by making models behind digitally fabricated artifacts graspable. Thus, we present a workshop concept that combines programming of graphics with laser cutting and engages children in designing, programming and fabricating jewelry. We report on our findings and conclude with recommendations and challenges to be considered in future workshops and research. 


MAKING As a Tool to Competence-based School Programming

Susanna Tesconi and Lucía Arias (Laboral Centro de Arte y Creación, Spain)
In this paper, we describe an ongoing education programme promoted by LABoral Art Centre that uses digital fabrication and ̈making ̈ in order to produce methodological change in teaching practice in public schools. Also we present a case study as example of FabLab environment used as constructionist toolkit. 


Makers in Residence Mexico: Creating the Conditions for Invention

Nancy Otero Ornelas, Gabriela Calderon, and Paulo Blikstein (Stanford University, California)
We describe our experience customizing and implementing the program Makers in Residence, created by the Transformative Learning Technology Lab (TLTL) at Stanford University. 33 randomly selected high school students participated in an 80-hour after school program where they learned how to used cutting edge technology such as 3D printers, laser cutter, and robotics. We discuss the pros and cons of the program implementation. Based on preliminary video analysis of the participants’ experience and pre and post surveys we analyze the possible short-term effect of the program along three dimensions: participants’ technology awareness, self-efficacy regarding invention, and career choices. We also point to implications for designing similar programs and understanding their effects.


FabLab@School: From Digital Literacy to Design Bildung

Mikkel Hjorth and Ole Sejer Iversen (Aarhus University, Denmark)
Digital fabrication is becoming commonplace in the educational systems. As has often been stated, it offers opportunities for enhancing digital literacy. In this paper we take the argument further – claiming the need for a design bildung perspective on digital fabrication. In doing so, we emphasize (1) the designerly thinking inherent in digital fabrication. Seeing it in (2) a bildung perspective puts emphasis on knowledge, skills and competences for all citizens of the near future. The implications of taking a design bildung perspective on digital fabrication are stated here as an increased focus on solving real-world problems, on technology as a material, on the ability and motivation to act designerly and on integrating the entire process of design (e.g. early ideation, co-design activities and prototyping) into the scope of digital fabrication in education. 



IK BEN STER(K). Empowering young adults through a peer-to-peer talent development platform

Emilia Louisa Pucci and Ingrid Mulder (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)
The goal of the project was to introduce FabLab and its open source technologies to the underprivileged young adults of a disadvantaged neighbourhood of Rotterdam in an attempt to stimulate them to learn how to empower themselves by making and sharing. The success of the workshop inspired the design of a peer- to-peer workshop platform combining social media, FabLabs, and ubiquitous technologies. The platform was tested in its elements, where students considered problematic became active co-creators in the workshops while collaboratively learning new skills. Key to project’s success lied in leveraging the students’ technological fluency by making digital fabrication accessible and engaging through a participatory bottom-up approach. IK BEN STER(K) showed to have the potential to build a thriving community of empowered individuals, serving as a “best practice” for future interventions in similar socio-cultural conditions. 


Digital Bricolage: hands-on experiences with digital interaction construction

Andrea Alessandrini (The University of Dundee, Scotland)
The prototyping process of interactive systems is a key phase in the learning activities of interaction design students. Designing connections and communications for computational elements is a challenging part in constructing interactive system architectures. The goal of this study is to explore and describe the practices and technologies used in the construction of interactive system architectures in practice. 


Nicolas Padfield, Michael Haldrup, and Mads Hobye (Roskilde University, Denmark)
We posit that modern fabrication and rapid prototyping practices can empower non-technical academic environments. For this to resonate with academic learning and research environments in a university context we must view FabLabs not only as machine parks but as creative environments, producing knowledge contributions in the form of processes, designs, artifacts and products. We must embrace thinking through the material, and embrace physical products as valid, accessible and assessable on an equal footing with traditional textual media. We describe two cases: workshops focused on exploration through the physical and digital media itself, without a traditional textual component. 

Session B

Paper presentations (Session B)

Integration of Digital Fabrication in Architechural Curricula

Leman Figen Gul (TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Turkey) and Lamila Simisic (International University of Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina)
Many design schools around the world have been adapting digital design concepts in their curricula. In relation to design education and pedagogy, researchers studied theoretical, computational and cognitive approaches of digital design. In this paper, we present two case studies, which include both components of solving a design problem such as in a design studio and software learning focusing on the implementation of the skills on a design task. 


Integral Digital Design and Fabrication Methods For Teaching Product Design

Shengfeng Qin (Northumbria University) and Jinsheng Kang (Brunel University, United Kingdom)
During a product/engineering design process, each design stage requires a different set of suitable design and model making tools no matter they are manual or digital in order to achieve best design efficiency and quality with a minimum project cost. Therefore, various digital fabrication methods in education need to be taught through design project-based teaching practice in context of a desktop digital design and product development process. This paper introduces an integral digital design and fabrication method for teaching Product Design students at university/college level, to enable them to gain good understanding of the roles of CAD and digital fabrications, pros and cons of using various digital fabrications at each stage in the design process, and what best benefits can be obtained with proper interaction between design and fabrication. Project examples are given to show how different design and fabrication tools were used in two product design processes and what the students learnt from them in terms of key points of understanding. This systematic approach of exploring digital fabrications in design education has been recommended. 


Open, Small-scale Fabrication: A Catalyst for Educating Communities about the Creation of Products

Jessi Baker, Yvonne Rogers, and Nicolai Marquardt (University College London, United Kingdom)
We introduce an experimental platform called Project Provenance that connects small-scale makers with people in their local community to share information about the products they make. The findings from a series of interviews with both digital fabricators and more traditional craftsmen are presented. A strong desire to promulgate ‘making stories’ was discovered. This paper also explores associated technologies, particularly product supply chain transparency through open linked data. There is potential for promoting small-scale urban fabrication, made increasingly viable through digital methods, by connecting makers with people in their cities. This could enable ‘making education’ at all ages, employment and empathetic connections within different sectors of local communities. 


Digital Fabrication by IDAC – Aims, Steps and Transferable Principles

Eva Eriksson, Wolmet Barendregt, Staffan Björk, Olof Torgersson, Magnus Eriksson, Carl Heath, and Peter Ljungstrand (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden)
This paper aims to present the digital fabrication approach driven by Gothenburg Working group for Interaction Design and Children – IDAC in Sweden. In addition to supporting local makerspace environments, educating teachers, school leaders and politicians, and conducting hacker clubs for children, we suggest including children in special education in a European agenda for digital fabrication at school, and make the maker movement matter for all children. In this paper, we identify three transferable principles for this. 


Designing Digital Technology and Materials for Digital Fabrication in Schools: a Hackerism Perspective

Kasper Skov Christensen and Ole Sejer Iversen (Aarhus University, Denmark)
We suggest using seven hacker ethic values as lenses in a conceptual “tool-to-think-with” when designing digital fabrication technologies and materials that aims to develop digital design literacy among adolescents in school. We discuss how this conceptual tool can be used to help promote critical reflection on design values, and provide a language to qualify a discussion of hackerism when designing digital fabrication technologies and materials for school. 


Toy hacking: a catalyst of children’s self development

Valentina Chinnici (Ravensbourne, United Kingdom)
This paper is a work in progress about the planning conceptual stages of ‘toy hacking’, examined from an original, practical and a theoretical perspective. The toy hacking process could become a catalyst of self- development for children re-purposing a familiar object for which they had a strong emotional attachment. Makerspaces and Fab Labs are entitled to become the social setting where it is possible to make a new kind of social ritual take place. Toy hacking could provide children with an innovative way to experiment, discover themselves and get into social interactions with peers through the joy of making.