Papers in the conference program

All FabLearn Europe / MakeEd Research Papers are ACM archival publications and will be made available through the ACM Digital Library. The list below includes peer reviewed Papers, Work-in-Progress papers, Workshop papers and Demos accepted for publication in the 6th FabLearn Europe / MakeEd Conference 2022 proceedings and included in the conference program. DOI links for these papers become active once the proceedings have been processed and made available. Publication of an accepted paper in the proceedings requires that at least one author of the paper registers for and participates in the conference.

The Workshops and Posters and Demos sessions also include submissions for the practitioner track. We invite you to joing the workshops and take a look at these awesome posters on site, as their contents will not be published as a part of the conference proceedings.


Paper Session I: STEAM education


Full paper: Making manipulatives for Mathematics

Susanne Koch Stigberg, Østfold University College, Norway
Henrik Stigberg, Østfold University College, Norway
Marianne Maugesten, Østfold University College, Norway

Abstract: This paper describes the efforts of an interdisciplinary team of researchers as they collaborated to create a digital fabrication curriculum module for mathematics teacher education. The initial four-day workshop design was piloted with five pre-service teachers. The design objective was to introduce digital fabrication techniques joint with mathematical concepts and the design of classroom activities to develop pre-service teachers’ technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge. The workshops included activities to find, adapt, create, and share mathematical manipulatives using digital fabrication tools, techniques, and platforms. Manipulatives are tangible objects reifying mathematical concepts and one type of representation used in mathematics teaching. The paper reports on the design process and our design motivations to address contextual constraints and varying levels of exposure to digital fabrication for both pre-service teachers and teacher educators. The developed “find-adapt-create-share” framework for introducing digital fabrication was evaluated through researchers’ self-reflection and pre-service teachers’ feedback during concluding interviews.


Full paper: Developing the Makerspace Learning and Assessment Framework

Alison Buxton, The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Louise Kay, The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Beth Nutbrown, The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom

Abstract: The makerspace movement is an effective approach to STEM/STEAM education. As well as equipping children with knowledge and skills in areas such as electronics, digital fabrication, and crafts, it is also key to supporting other important habits of mind such as creativity, critical thinking and collaboration. Assessing such habits of mind is not straightforward but can be helpful in seeing the value of makerspaces in formal and non-formal educational settings. This paper presents the development of a tool, the ‘Makerspace Learning Assessment Framework’ that discerns the characteristics of effective learning present when children (aged 3-10) engage in making through an after-school makerspace in the north of England.


WiP paper: Does MakeScience Make Sense?

Michal Raz Bahat, Davidson Institute of Science Education, Israel
Oren Eckstien, Davidson Institute of Science Education, Israel

Abstract: Over the last two years we have been developing a novel approach, placing science education at the center of a maker technological environment: Make Science. In order to refine our Make Science approach, we have implemented a design-based research method working mostly with elementary and middle school students, in which we repeat the process of developing and applying our educational activities. At the end of the process, we categorized our approach into 5 operating pedagogical principles: introduce science through a multidisciplinary perspective; introduce the aspects of science from basic principles to current scientific research; focus on the “educational process” as the center of learning; emphasize the acquisition of unique learning skills; engage students with “flow” (optimal learning experience). In our paper, we will elaborate in-depth on these principles while referring to a few case studies which took place within our Make Science environment.


WiP paper: Exploring Making in Schools: A Maker-Framework for Teachers in K12

Bernadette Spieler, Zurich University of Teacher Education, Switzerland
Tobias M. Schifferle, Zurich University of Teacher Education, Switzerland
Manuela Dahinden, University of Zurich, Switzerland and CreativeLabZ, Switzerland

Abstract: In recent years, the Maker movement has surged in popularity and has become attractive for didactic research. Exploration, creativity, open learning spaces, and problem-orientation are the foundations for successful Maker-Education. While the relevance of Making in higher education is slowly being recognized, it is still uncharted territory for most schools. As part of the “Making at School” project, the Zurich University of Teacher Education, together with the University of Zurich and the CreativeLab Zurich, is committed to creating interdisciplinary modules for Making, e.g., in biology, computer science, or handicraft. The main goal is to help teachers to develop a Maker mindset by providing ideas for designing their own projects. This paper presents a preliminary planning framework that is evaluated by (inter-) national experts in Making. This first assessment shows that the framework is described as useful and appealing, but still too complex to be used in schools.



Paper Session II: 21st century skills


Full paper: Model-based support for authoring Design-based Learning and Maker Education materials in elementary education

Annemiek Veldhuis, Simon Fraser University, Canada
Di Xiao, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands
Tilde Bekker, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands
Panos Markopoulos, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands

Abstract: Design-based Learning (DBL) and Maker Education (ME) are educational approaches that aim to equip students with 21st century skills. As they are not yet widely adopted in the Netherlands, Dutch teachers often develop their own teaching materials. However, these teachers might be unfamiliar with the intricacies of DBL and ME, and they may have trouble setting learning objectives related to the design process or assessing these objectives. In this paper, we explore how a blueprint for DBL and ME curriculum design, based on several curriculum design models, can support elementary school teachers with creating projects for their classroom. We report on the design and implementation of a workshop with three teachers. Based on observation data, workshop artifacts, and post-workshop interviews, we report insights in teachers’ experiences with creating design briefs, setting learning objectives, choosing learning and assessment activities, and further contextual needs related to the implementation of the designed project.


Full paper: Youth’s perspectives of computational design in making-based coding activities

Christos Chytas, Radbound University, The Netherlands
Eike Brahms, University of Oldenburg, Germany
Ira Diethelm, University of Oldenburg, Germany
Erik Barendsen, Radbound University & Open Universiteit of the Netherlands, The Netherlands

Abstract: There are increasing calls to introduce coding in K-12 in creative ways that provide opportunities for personal expression. Computational design projects include computational concepts fundamental to computer science to generate 2D and 3D models that can potentially be personally meaningful. We developed and implemented making-based coding activities for youth that combine computational design and 3D printing tools to design and fabricate projects of their choice. To investigate how young persons engaged in computational design and which aspects demotivated them, we used a mixed-methods approach that included semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. We took field notes and collected students’ artifacts to triangulate the data wherever possible. The results show that 3D printing, creating unique aesthetics, enhanced personalization, and ownership of design models are crucial elements for engaging youth in computational design. We discuss the implications of our exploratory study and suggest directions for future work in developing computationally rich making-based activities


WiP paper:  Remix the School Project : Socio-Emotional Learning through Biomaterial making

Inés Macarena Burdiles Araneda, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile
Xavier Dominguez, Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia, Spain
Marion Real, Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia, France
Santiago Fuentemilla, Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia, Spain
Anastasia Pistofidou, Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia, Spain

Abstract: This paper shows the co-design and implementation process of a socio-emotional learning experience  through bio-material making. Remix The School is the application of a theoretical construct that proposes to bring to formal and informal K12 educational contexts the knowledge accumulated at Iaac Fab Lab Barcelona around Biomaterial Fabrication, through several years of practice, research and pedagogy in postgraduate programs. In this paper we describe the methodology followed based on presenting with equal relevance different stages of the biomaterial development process. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned and propose recommendations sharing key findings for implementing a hybrid training of trainers programme during 2021-2022 academic year.


WiP paper:  Scaffolding Preschool Children’s Upcycling and Recycling Experiences through Free vs. Guided Play Activities

Selin Agirbas, Özyegin University, Turkey
Asli Seher Kiziltan, Özyegin University, Turkey
Çagla Irmak Badem, Özyegin University, Turkey
Gökçe Elif Baykal, Özyegin University, Turkey

Abstract: Waste management is becoming more important than ever before and teaching children about recycling and upcycling from early ages can be fun and rewarding. This study aims at engaging preschool children in upcycling activities through a playful toy kit, namely TOYI. To this end, we investigate free and guided play conditions for using the toy kit by looking at children’s creations. We report preliminary qualitative results derived from parents’ diaries and reflections on their children’s use of the toy kit while engaging in two conditions. The overarching goal is to develop a digital platform to scaffold children’s upcycling activities and the results of this study provide preliminary insights about how to support children’s engagement in these activities through free and guided play sessions.


Paper Session III: Maker spaces and identities

Full paper: Madness to the methods: Speculating approaches to study and nurture children’s designer and Maker identities

Sumita Sharma, University of Oulu, Finland
Leena Ventä-Olkkonen, University of Oulu, Finland
Netta Iivari, University of Oulu, Finland
Tonja Molin-Juustila, University of Oulu, Finland
Heidi Hartikainen, University of Oulu, Finland
Jenni Holappa, University of Oulu, Finland
Essi Kinnunen, University of Oulu, Finland

Abstract: As our relationship with digital technology radically changes during this pandemic, it becomes imperative to reimagine new ways of interactions and collaborations. It is also important for children grow from passive consumers of digital technology to active designers and Makers. Typical research approaches for inquiring or probing children’s digital technology identities include interview-, reflection-, and hands-on creative-types of methods. But how will these methods fare in a future that is online or hybrid? In this paper, we present the outcomes of a workshop that employed critical design fiction with Child-Computer Interaction experts to speculate on how such methods can be applied in the future, in online or limited access scenarios, to study children’s designer and Maker identities. We focused on approaches that are empowering, albeit provocative. We call for researchers working with children to reconsider and expand their methods repertoire to keep in tune with the changing times.


WiP paper:  Chaos and order in maker coaching. Towards a pathway for library makerspaces

Manon Mostert-van der Sar, Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
Peter Troxler, Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands

Abstract: Ten years have passed since makerspaces first appeared in libraries, and their contribution to developing digital literacy and 21st-century skills is widely recognized. However, mounting and running a makerspace still means embarking into new territory for each next library, as this Dutch study with novice maker coaches showed.


WiP paper:  The Mind- and Makerspace. Supporting creative thinking and doing for everyone

Katrijn Bulckens, Howest, Hogeschool West-Vlaanderen, Belgium
Hadiel Holail Mohamed, Howest, Hogeschool West-Vlaanderen, Belgium
Evelien Neirynck, School, Howest, Hogeschool West-Vlaanderen, Belgium
Tijs Verbeke, School, Howest, Hogeschool West-Vlaanderen, Belgium

Abstract: In this paper we present an ongoing research project aimed at evaluating the impact of the Mind- and Makerspace (MaM) in Bruges, Belgium. The MaM is envisioned as an open space where students, schools, social organizations, entrepreneurs, companies and citizens are stimulated to develop a creative, exploratory and entrepreneurial attitude to contribute to a sustainable society. To achieve these objectives the MaM offers infrastructure, network, knowledge, methodologies and coaching. The MaM was founded by Howest University of Applied Sciences and intended as an open education system, aiming to detect and empower talents of any individual. The main goal of this impact research is to investigate whether the approach works, under what circumstances and what change it brings for its users and partners. This research project aims to contribute to an accessible impact measurement methodology as well, that can be used by other social entrepreneurs.


WiP paper:  Educational makerspaces in Danish primary and lower-secondary school

Michal Pilgaard, VIA University College, Denmark
Ditte Amund Basballe, VIA University College, Denmark
Lillian Buus, VIA University College, Denmark
Rikke Toft Nørgård, DPU Aarhus University, Denmark
Christian Christrup Kjeldsen, DPU Aarhus University, Denmark
Simon Ryberg Madsen, Epinion, Denmark
Mikkel Hjorth, VIA University College, Denmark

Abstract: In recent years, an increasing interest in establishing and engaging with makerspaces in the context of formal educational settings in primary and lower-secondary schools in Denmark has grown. Initiatives to establish makerspaces as formal learning spaces in Denmark can be linked to international concepts and thoughts about FabLabs, Hackerspaces, and the Maker movement. A mapping of educational makerspace initiatives aiming for students in primary and lower-secondary schools in Denmark has been conducted as part of a larger evaluation of 17 educational makerspace establishments in Danish municipalities. This paper presents early findings from the evaluation. The overall aim of the evaluation is to gain knowledge about makerspace settings as learning environments and the potential and challenges such settings pose to pedagogical practice.



Paper Session IV: Future is now

Full paper: Imagining Better Futures for Everybody – Sustainable Entrepreneurship Education for Future Design Protagonists

Marianne Kinnula, University of Oulu, Finland
Eva Durall, University of Oulu, Finland
Lotta Haukipuro, University of Oulu, Finland

Abstract: Previous research has shown the need for children to grow to ‘design protagonists’, developing skills and competences in technology design and being able to reflect on the role of technology in their own lives as well as in the society. Entrepreneurship understanding has been linked as one important competence for design protagonists, for having skills to plan for and reflect on a better future for all of us. To advance understanding on how to support children to grow to design protagonists in areas connected to technology, business, and sustainability, we conducted a study with 14-15-year-olds, educating them first about artificial intelligence (AI) and sustainable business thinking, and asking them then to create and present business ideas for sustainable innovations that use AI. Based on the findings, we indicate the need to link systems thinking approaches with this type of education and we provide some recommendations for practice.


WiP paper:  ROBIN – Designing a ROBot for Interactive Narratives to engage preschool children

Sveva Valguarnera, Università della Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland
Monica Landoni, Università della Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland

Abstract: Following a series of interviews with parents and teachers, and a cycle of collaborative design sessions with children aged 4-6 years old, this work in progress presents the design of an interactive storytelling robot able to engage preschool children in building narratives. Starting with a series of tools already on the market for this age range as a complement to reading aloud, we have elicited a number of requirements, using them to sketch a first version of ROBIN. We plan to further refine our work with another cycle of collaborative design sessions, and to implement a functional, high-interactivity prototype of ROBIN in the near future.


WiP paper:  Drone-based learning: A project based learning (PBL) programme for secondary school students to explore making, and ethics

Enrica Amplo, La Tata Robotica, Italy

Abstract: Secondary school students, with no computer science in their curriculum, were engaged in a programme framed by project-based learning (PBL) and focused on drone design with the aim to introduce them to the making world and coding. After an interactive introduction on drones and a reflection on their impact and implications in our society, students were asked to research how drones could be used for good. Each team went through all the steps of the design cycle: from the understanding and definition of the problem to solve using drones (e.g., medical assistance in remote locations, prevention of fires, supervision of an archeological site), to the making of a prototype of the chosen scenario, from the coding of the drone to the demonstration of their projects. Students were proactive, creative, and collaborative, showing a positive engagement with making and coding.


WiP paper:  Prototyping Products using Web-based AI Tools: Designing a Tangible Programming Environment with Children

Alpay Sabuncuoglu, Koç University, Turkey
Metin Sezgin, Koç University, Turkey

Abstract: A wide variety of children’s products such as mobile apps, toys, and assistant systems now have integrated smart features. Designing such AI-powered products with children, the users, is essential. Using high-fidelity prototypes can be a means to reveal children’s needs and behaviors with AI-powered systems. Yet, a prototype that can show unpredictable features similar to the final AI-powered product can be expensive. A more manageable and inexpensive solution is using web-based AI prototyping tools such as Teachable Machine. In this work, we developed a Teachable Machine-powered game-development environment to inform our tangible programming environment’s design decisions. Using this kind of an AI-powered high-fidelity prototype in the research process allowed us to observe children in a very similar setting to our final AI-powered product and extract design considerations. This paper reports our experience of prototyping AI-powered solutions with children and shares our design considerations for children’s self-made tangible representations.


WiP paper:  Green Stories for Digital Sustainable Development Education

Sannah König, University of Stuttgart, Germany
Saskia Schabio, University of Stuttgart, Germany

Abstract: Increasingly, Education for Sustainable Development is taking root in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) classrooms. In this context, recent research in empirical and cognitive literary studies examines ways of enhancing environmental literacy through literature’s potential to evoke empathy and critical thinking. In this study, our aim is to examine the ‘added value’ of ‘making’ in improving effects of ‘green stories’ by combining forms of embodied reading and performance methodologies with recent approaches to ‘making’. The effects of making activities to be explored within the context of our study will include setting up video interviews with fictional characters, creating VR rooms to meet literary characters and retelling stories with interactive tools such as twine. We will review and negotiate results with the findings presented by Bull [2017] and Chu [2015]. We work from empirical research on the impact of literary reading on environmental literacy, and then examine potential benefits of performance methodologies and embodied reading in enhancing environmental literacy. In order to explore the value of making in the literature classroom, we bring together cognitive studies, performance methodologies and environmental literacy with research on making and maker spaces





Workshop: Imagine a move in space

Maarten Hennekes, HAN University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
Merel Visser, Makers on the Move, Netherlands
Vera Schepers, Fablab Arnhem, Netherlands
Tjeerd Kootstra, Rozet Cultural Center, Netherlands
Peter Troxler, Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands

Call for participation: This workshop takes “space” as a starting point – for imagination, creative thinking and learning – think of the High Line in New York or the Superkilen Urban Park in Copenhagen. And it makes use of materials that have already led a life and have a story to tell – bring your own inspirations and materials! Using speculative design as a method we will together develop a prototype maker kit for maker education, online and onsite, on the topic of space. We will question the kit critically: Can the kit create more space? More space for imagination, for creativity, for play, more space in the curriculum, more space to apply the kit to different subjects? These questions stem from our attempt to provide maker education online, converting a classroom project into a kit plus online teaching format. Online was full of fun, flow, collaboration, a new space for maker education. It felt promising.

Lenght: 120 min


Workshop:  A series of fortunate accidents: Lessons learned from when things go sideways in making projects with children

Heidi Hartikainen, University of Oulu, Finland
Leena Ventä-Olkkonen, University of Oulu, Finland
Marta Cortés Orduña, University of Oulu, Finland
Iván Sánchez Milara, University of Oulu, Finland
Sumita Sharma, University of Oulu, Finland
Behnaz Norouzi, University of Oulu, Finland
Marianne Kinnula, University of Oulu, Finland

Call for participation: Maker culture celebrates mistakes as an essential part of the process, as reflecting on our failures promotes learning and understanding of the processes we work with. In the spirit of the maker culture, in this workshop we will celebrate our mistakes, and engage in networked and shared learning that hopefully leads to better laid plans, improved activities, and increased communality. We invite researchers and practitioners to discuss with us the fortunate accidents made when working with children in digital fabrication and making projects, and to compile a set of short papers including lessons learned geared towards the researcher or practitioner entering the FabLearn community. We encourage interested participants to submit either a short paper (1–3 pages) or simply an expression of interest to the organizers. For more information, please visit the workshop website:

Length: 120 minutes


Workshop: The Equity Mindset – Promoting Equity in Makerspaces

Sannah König, University of Stuttgart, Germany
Jan Vanvinkenroye, University of Stuttgart, Germany

Call for participation:  Imagine a makerspace filled with people, happily working on their projects. Perhaps it’s your familiar makerspace; Perhaps it’s the place you dream of building. Now look closely at the people: do you see users in wheelchairs? Do you see many skin colors? Do you see a novel casually left on a table somewhere or only engineering textbooks? Do you see a rainbow-striped sock peeking out of a shoe? If you want your makerspace to be inviting to a broad scope of people, this is the workshop for you: through discussion, self-reflection and interactive, cooperative work on a virtual whiteboard, we will guide you through a thorough exploration of the concepts of diversity, accessibility and inclusion. You will leave with a strong sense of what an “equity mindset” could be and concrete ideas about how to ensure equity of access in the communities you are building.

Length: 120 minutes


Workshop:  Tiny space – Great ideas

Karsten Juncher,

Endless ideas? Endless possibilities? Endless space? In co-creative processes, with a flow of ideas, materials and technologies, you may lose track and miss the small but essential iterations and learning along the way. We designed the TinkerQube as a tool to focus things in a delimited space. The cubes are open wireframes of wood, ready to hold your ideas and constructions in the process. An open standard easy to build upon with common materials, toys, low/hightech machinery etc. They are used in various learning environments as low-entry mini-makerspaces, as didactic spaces for building projects, as tools for making movies, microgreens, mock-ups and more. This workshop is an open invitation to try our TinkerQube “safespace” with your curious hands and minds in front. We hope you leave this workshop/playground with an even greater didactic, technical and narrative imagination for tinkering in more dimensions

Workshop:   Escaperoom – Crack the code by building a clever device

The aim of this workshop is to give you as a participant the opportunity to explore the use of different sensor capabilities of a microcontroller. The task is to make a device using the Micro:bit and various input sensors, to open a mysterious box elsewhere in the room. Through solving puzzles, you will find out what code to send in order to make it “pop” open. Further, experiences are shared on how creating a small scenario, motivates the students in engaging in the activity in a more meaningful way, by framing a more playful experience for learning about sensors and how to code them.

Workshop:   Verdens Bedste Robotby i børnehøjde

udvikling af spil og læringsaktiviteter fra elev til elev.



Demos and posters

Demo: Introducing the Intranet of Things for Education

Lorraine Underwood, Lancaster University, United Kingdom
Joe Finney, Lancaster University, United Kingdom

Abstract: This demonstration presents an approach to give students the ability to create an “Intranet of Things” to record, analyse and share environmental data using a transparent cloudlet. The Internet of Things (IoT) is an important subject for students to explore. Many commercial sensors are IoT devices, but these can be unusable in schools due to practical reasons of controlled access to whitelisted web services as well as ethical aspects of sharing children’s data with third parties. We will empower children and teachers how to code and setup devices outside the school network, that can sense and record temperature, light and movement data inside the school buildings. The system allows data from the whole school to be easily shared, collated and analysed without using the Internet, but while still educating students about IoT and cloud concepts. We will demonstrate this “Intranet of Things” with live data collected from the conference venue.


Demo: Discovering student projects in the do your :bit challenge

Aimée, E., Fagan, Micro:bit Educational Foundation

Abstract: The do your: bit challenge is a global design challenge for young people aged 8 – 18 focusing on the UN’s Sustainable development Goals (SDGs). The challenge adds social purpose to digital learning and allows students to apply their digital skills to real world solutions. Young innovators are encouraged to design solutions to the goals using the BBC micro:bit device – a small, programmable computer with a wide range of inputs, outputs and sensors. Using computing, design and prototyping, student submissions are as ambitious as they are empathetic. This demo session will offer an overview of some such innovations, designed by young people to address a series of goals. Participants to the session will see video prototypes of designs using the micro:bit including a solar panel for reusable energy, a portable filtration device and a paper prototype (drawing) of a reusable, virtual facemask



The posters and demos session at the conference will also include posters for the practitioner track. Come take a look of some interesting projects on site when you have the chance!

  • Making a Bridge: building connections through making. Roey Kafri, Bloomfield Science Museum
  • Mind- and makerspace: Supporting creative thinking and doing for everyone. Evelien Neirynck, Howest University of Applied Sciences
  • OutAR Space: Augmented Reality-Based Interactive Direction Learning Guide for Children. Debi Ahitov, Hisar School, ideaLab FabLab
  • PraxisdigitaliS. David Baberowski, Technische Universität Dresden
  • Teknologi-leg i skolens fritidsdel (SFO). Christian Toft, Fuglsanggårdsskolen
  • The ”Making at School” Project. Bernadette Spieler, Zurich University of Teacher Education
  • The Cyber Weapon: Escape Puzzles and Unplugged Computational Thinking with Computational Things. Roland Hackmann
  • Towers – Interlocking constructing elements, connecting ideas. Manuel, Daniele, Lorenzo and Mattia, Laboratori di Artigianato Digitale
  • Ultra:Bit – Super animals. Christoffer Dithmer, Vallensbæk Municipality
  • Using Robotics to Investigate Artificial Intelligence. Daniel Spikol, University of Copenhagen, Center for Digital Education, ASTRA, and Shape Robotics
  • Design and making  in Inkscape. Gameplay in Danish, Josephine og Nina, Islev School / TekX
  • TinkerQube playground. Karsten Juncher,